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Englisch Lk Lernzettel Nds 2008 Moe11
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 13:55:20    Titel: Englisch Lk Lernzettel Nds 2008 Moe11

Ich habe hier für Englisch LK Niedersachsen lernzettel für alles 3 Semester:

THEMATISCHER SCHWERPUNKT 1: USA: BIG CITIES – OPEN SPACES

NEW YORK
- tourism
- traffic (=taxi, subway)
- danger
- homelessness
- poverty vs. richness
- busy life
- night life
- culture
- many people, immigrants
- multi-cultural society
- Central Park
- Statue of liberty
- Ground Zero
- population: 27% Hispanics, 35% white Nonhispanics, 24% African Americans

THE EARLY SETTLER´S VISION OF AMERICA
- the dream of a new society
à better life than in Europe
à wanted to take part in founding and free society
à develop their natural abilities
à no political, religious, social barriers
- reasons for immigration
à religious freedom
à to practice the faith of their choice
à political freedom
à “new world”
à possibility to set up new political and social orders
à free of persecution an inequality
à personal and economical advancement (Förderung)
à new opportunities that could not be realised in Europe
à are prepared to work hard
à hope for prosperity, social esteem (Ansehen)
- America as a “new Jerusalem”
à a “promised” land with “god’s chosen people”
à enough fertile (fruchtbar) land, abundant (reich, üppig) forest and water
à opportunity to set up a new fairer social and political order







THE AMERICAN DREAM – TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
- individualism
à central concept, self-reliance (Selbstständigkeit) and responsibility for one’s own fate
à tradition of sceptic about government interference (Einmischung)
à “if you fail, it is your own fault”
à struggle for freedom
à tension (Spannung) between the individual and the community
- Uncle Sam
à nickname for the American government
à bearded (bärtig) man dressed in stars and stripes
- Ellis Island
à headquarters (Hauptquartier) at the US immigration authority from
1892 – 1954
à 20 million people entered through the island
- The Puritans
à 16/17th century: social/religious movement
à demand (fordern) the abolition (Abschaffung) of “humans inventions” in church
à shaped (gestalten) many aspects of the civil religion: integrity (Einheit), education, work
- Manifest Destiny
à America as the missionary of the world
à “nation of the future”
à role as global mediator
à justify the territorial expansion and imperialism
- Frontier
à referred to the line of settlement and civilisation moving westwards
à frontier reached Pacific in 1890
à frontier is kept alive in culture
- Melting Pot
à individuals of all nations
- multiculturalism
à appeared as term in 1980´s
à became popular when minority groups asked for equal rights and opportunities
à competing concepts: assimilation or pluralism; mainstream vs. minority culture
à has achieved (verwirklichen) more rights for minority groups, has achieved further cultural fragmentation
- Definition of “The American Dream”
à The expression “American Dream” usually refers to al body of ideas such as democracy, liberty, opportunities for achievement despite (trotz) social or racial backgrounds, a better material life, freedom and equality, circumstances that would allow the individual to fulfil his or her ambitions.
- prerequisites (Vorraussetzungen)
à diligence (Fleiß)
à temperance (Müßigkeit)
à prudence (Besonnenheit/Vorsicht)
à integrity (Ehrlichkeit, Aufrichtigkeit)
à economy (Sparsamkeit)
à punctuality (Pünktlichkeit)
à courage (Mut)
à perseverance (Durchhaltevermögen, Ausdauer)
à morality (der Moral folgend leben)
à honesty (Ehrlichkeit)
- gain (Gewinn/Verdienst)
à richness/wealth (Reichtum, Vermögen)
à success
à reputation (Ansehen)
à influence
à honour (Ehre)
à happiness
- examples: Bill Gates, Whoopi Goldberg
- images of “the old world” (Europe)
à Europe hasn’t got to offer anything but a familiar language and some poor kindred (Verwandschaft)
à not enough food for everyone, only morsels (Stückchen) of bread
à dependant on despotic (tyrannisch) princes or rich abbots
à idleness (Trägheit) penury (völlige Armut), useless labour (Aufgaben, Anstrengungen)
à religion demands (fordert) too much
- images of “the new world” (America)
à offers one of the finest systems of population ever
à fertile (fruchtbar) soil (Boden, Erde) à enough food
à fat and frolicsome (lustig, ausgelassen) wives and children
à exuberant (lebendig, übersprudelnd) crops (Ernte)
à great mass of arts, sciences, vigour (Stärke, Vitalität, Energie) and industry
à none who claims (beansprucht) your money, just small voluntary (freiwillig) salaries to the minister
à Americans are rewarded (belohnt) by an abundant (reich, üppig) life
à melting pot of races
à new mode of life, new government
à America will cause great change in the world
à much better than Europe
à labour (Arbeit, Aufgabe) on the basis of nature
- images of “the American”
à someone who loves his or her country
à strange mixture of blood
à acts upon new principles, entertains new ideas and forms new opinions
à obeys (folgen, gehorchen) his or her government
à leaves prejudices and old manners behind
à individuals melted to a new race of men who will one day cause great changes in the world
- lifes become nightmares instead of dreams
- particular nightmare: Vietnam war (traumatic experience)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE AMERICAN DEMOCRACY
- democracy and the American constitution as a search of identity and self-fulfilment
- Constitution = a source of self-identification and patriotism containing (enthalten) the ideals which are fundamental to the ethos of the American nation
- 1620: Mayflower Compact
à 102 people sailing to America (Puritans and settlers for commercial reasons)
à they arrived at the wrong place, problem: they had no authorization to settle
à they drew up a formal document
à create a “Civil Body Politic”
à they kept the laws of their leaders for the good of the whole colony
à first constitution, embodies (verkörpern) the beginning of representative, consensual (übereinstimmend?) government
- 1754 – 1763: colonist fought for the Britain’s who won all the land east of the Mississippi River
à Britain had lots of debts (Schulden)
- 1764 – 1767:
à colonies should pay war debts
à taxation on goods imported to America from outside Great Britain
à colonies wanted to be represented in Parliament before paying taxes
- 1770: Boston Massacre
à Boston centre of protest
à 4000 British soldiers sent
à anti-British riot (large crowd vs. small groups of soldiers
à soldiers shot in the crowd à five people dead
à it was called a massacre
- 1773: Boston Tea Party
à new law: only British owned East India Company can sell tea to colonies
à cheaper teas/other sources illegal
à colonists: no tea will be unloaded in Boston
à throw the tea into the harbour
- 1775: Battle of Lexington and Concord
à British soldiers want to arrest anti-British leader, take away guns, begin to march from Boston
à people in Lexington and Concord are warned à first real battle of independence
- 1776: Declaration of Independence
à thirteen colonies independent from Britain
à a list of wrongs that should be rightened
à America had gained own democratic principles by time à they wanted to break away from the Crown
à written by Thomas Jefferson
à second continental congress (meeting of representatives from the colonies)
à accepted on July 4th à Independence Day
à explanation why they couldn’t no longer accept a monarchical rule
à general principles an abstract theory of government à ideological framework (Gerüst) for the constitution
- 1791: The Bill of Rights
à because the constitution originally specify individual rights,
several (einige, mehrere) of the Founding Fathers decided that rights of American citizens should be protected
à first ten amendments (Verbesserung) to the constitution
à guarantee of the following freedoms and rights
à freedom of religion (to belong to any or no religion, one official religion established)
à freedom of the press (to print, but without printing falsehoods (Lügen) or things that harm (verletzen, Schaden zufügen) others)
à freedom of competition (urge (bitten, drängen) government to pass laws, to ask government to take certain actions)
à right to equal justice (all accused (anklagen, beschuldigen) receive a fair and equal treatment in a court of law)
à freedom of speech (to express ideas/opinions without voluntary (freiwillig) speaking falsely in order to injure/harm other citizens)
à freedom of assembly (Versammlung) ( to hold meetings, but peacefully and obeying (folgen) local laws)
à freedom and security of citizens (no unlawful search in people’s homes, right to bear arms (Waffen führen) to protect myself, no troops (Gruppen) stationed in people’s homes)

AMERICAN FRONTIER
- meeting point between savagery (Wildheit) and civilization
- rapid Americanization
- promotion of democracy
- lies at the outer (äußeres) edge (Rand) of free land
- life in primitive conditions
- thinly populated
- different from European frontiers

WILDERNESS
- masters the colonists
- colonists also transformed the wilderness
- unknown land without civilization/civilized inhabitant
- people are first transformed to ones similar to the Native Americans
(à primitive life, far away from European influences and other civilized people, away from material things = clothes, infrastructures, live from what nature provided)
- new product = Americans
- survive or die



MOVING WEST
- first frontier = Atlantic coast, European frontier
- new opportunities
- people change from Europeans to Americans
- growth of Independence

RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN FRONTIER
- strength (Kraft, Stärke)
- coarseness (Grobheit, Rohheit)
- power
- practical and inventive mind

MANIFEST DESTINY
- a phenomenon (no date, event or period of time)
- philosophy that embraces American History as a Whole
- “a movement”, a systematic body of concepts and beliefs, that powered American life and American culture
- 1845 firstly named
- defence for Americans claim to new territories,
à Providence a natural right for the “experiment of liberty and federative development”
à a torch that lit the way for expansion
- as old as America
- components: Americans Nationalism, vision of social perfection, through religion
à created reasons to conquer new land, exemplified American’s ideological need to dominate the world
à impression: nothing will delay the progress
- justification to take Indian land

MELTING POT
- a lot of people take their culture, religion, traditions, beliefs, … to a new place of residency and form one new nation and culture by mixing all these features

SALAD BOWL
- a lot of different people with different cultures, … live together, they mix with other people but don’t give up their cultures
- the different cultures are accepted by the others









“MANIFEST DESTINY” – The Ideology of the Westward Movement
(Example for the development of an own self-esteem of the American)

- The rich and beautiful land of the American continent is given to the Anglo-Saxon race by God
- The wealth (resources etc.) has been placed there by Providence (Vorsehung) to reward the brave spirits (Anglo-Saxons) whose task it is to compose the advance-guard of civilization
- Indians have to stand aside or be overwhelmed by the advancing and increasing tide of emigration
- The Anglo-Saxon race has the God given task to civilize the American continent
- Westward Movement ended in 1890 with the close of the frontier
- Imperialism of the USA was then also justified with the “Manifest Destiny” and their task to civilize the world as God chosen race (O’Sullivan)

“THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRONTIER IN AMERICAN HISTORY”
(Frederick Jackson Turner)

- The “imaginary” frontier in America was the author of the American way of life
- With the arrival of European settlers in America in the 17th Century they began to settle the new continent from the East coast. The influence of Europe was very big, since America was a colony of the British Empire until 1776.
- The Westward Movement moved the “imaginary” Frontier, which separated the “wilderness” from the settlers, the civilisation, continuously to the west. As a result the influence of Europe went smaller.
- The settlers stripped off the garments of civilisation and focused on the simplicity of human being
- They started to explore the new land just with things they can get there
- The complex society was precipitated by the wilderness into a kind of primitive organization based on the family
- Settlers had to invent new machinery to economize and civilize their new lands
- They look optimistically in the future and provide the democracy

Close of the “frontier” in 1890s

- The society of America is based on migration
- The immigrants coming to America are searching for a better life, but with the close of the frontier it went more difficult to buy cheap land and to build up an own existence
- As result many people searched for work in the cities and the flew of Immigrants seeking for the “American Dream” causes big social problems (unemployment, poverty)
- Moreover, capitalists who looked to the frontier for raw materials, markets and investment opportunities began to look elsewhere. This causes the Imperialism.

Striking Characteristics of the Americans (concerning the aspects of the Frontier and the “Manifest Destiny”)

- Self-esteem being the God chosen race to civilize the world
- Independent (Promoting democracy à Independence and Equality for all people)
- Individualistic (Focused on themselves to survive in the wilderness)
- Inventive (Invention of new machinery to civilize and economize the lands)
- Wasteful (because of the frontier the land was easily to get so they wasted much sources)
- Restless, nervous energy which makes them wanting to explore or conquer other areas in the world


THEMATISCHER SCHWERPUNKT 2:
BRITAIN: CROSS-CULTURAL ENCOUNTERS (Begegnungen)


THE BRITISH EMPIRE
- member countries (colonies): about 50
- population: ¼ of the world’s population
- the most powerful and biggest empire of the world
- export: weapons, guns, textiles, tools
- import: rum, slaves, sugar, cotton, rice
- the British king or queen was the head of the colonies
- India: most important colony (East India Company)

RISE AND FALL OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
- global import and export (Europe = huge (riesig, gewaltig) demand (Forderung) for imported goods)
- Britain: one corner (Ecke) of the trade triangle (West Africa – West Indies)
- British trading companies fought wars with European rivals à coastal bases established
- British East India Company
- British Monarch granted documents to give trading rights to the companies in certain territories
- second half of the 19th century: by imperialism more and more territories under formal British governance à markets for manufactured goods from fully industrialized Britain access (Zugang) to raw materials
- after financial crisis of British East India Company the British crown took over control in India and later in Burma
- Britons came to India to live more prosperously (paid by the Indian taxes)
- 1884 at the Berlin West Africa Conference, Britain was relatively liberal and got control of African territories à white settlers came to Africa and brought civilization and culture
- in 19th century British public opinion towards slavery changes à regarded as a sin (Vergehen)
- lots of Africans were Christianized
- the fall of the British Empire was a complex process à ended with the independence of the colonies
- Britain’s sense of superiority was undermined
- U.S. started to compete for global influence too
- Britain needed help of the U.S. in World War I à scepticism about the own political power
- after World War II severe (hart, schwer) financial crisis (India in huge (riesig, gewaltig) debts (Schulden))
- more under attack, critical attitude to colonialism worldwide and in Britain
- the colonies struggled for national movements, traditions revive
- a system of local governments established à basis for new independent nation’s government (Christianity helped with self-confidence)
- at the end of the 19th century: several colonies were granted dominion status à self-government, British monarch = head of the state
- for non-white colonies: a longer way to independence, in India still complicated on account of the Muslim minority à two states: India and Pakistan in 1947
- in post-war Britain: lots of immigrants
- Commonwealth: political and economic ties (binden) to former colonies
- Britain welcomed immigrants because of chronic labour shortage (Mangel)
- largest inflow: 1956 – 1974
- London: highest concentration of immigrants
- today: less tolerance for immigrants à high unemployment rates, racial discrimination (violent-conflicts)
- flow of immigrants restricted, British Nationality Act 1981: only the right to settle for those which British parents already settled in Britain

COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS
- Queen: head of state
- an organization guaranteeing fair trade and equal conditions for all member states

REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION
- economic
à finding work (unemployment, bad economy)
à social security
- religious persecution
à no religious freedom
- political oppression
à non-democratic system




















EAST IS EAST
- conflict between the father George who came from Pakistan and his children born in England
- live in a quarter without many Pakistani; Bradistan: a quarter of Bradford where nearly only Pakistani live, a market on the streets, exotic vegetables, other clothes
- George came from Pakistan without having anything
- he wants to keep the Muslim traditions
- his children are westernized, can’t speak Urdu, have to go to an Islam school
- he tries to arrange marriages for his sons
- doesn’t accept the westernized life of his children
- lots of family secrets
- British wife, defends her children
- conflict more and more dangerous and violent
- nearly no communication between father and children, George cannot accept, that they’re no traditional
- one daughter, seven sons, one is dismissed from the family, literally dead, homosexual
- one son has a relationship with a British girl (in secret)
- one son studies art
- some sons drink alcohol
- one son is a real believing Muslim
- the daughter plays football with British boys
- youngest son not circumcised (beschnitten)
- their neighbours are racists, the son is interested in Islam
- for George was religion the only refuge (Zuflucht) in a foreign country
- George is authoritarian, can’t break with his own experiences, authority to defend himself
- his children are better educated than he is, afraid of loosing his face in his community
- Nazir leaves the family à complicates the situation again
- in relation with Ella: lovely, gentle sizes
- George is the only on in the family who doesn’t speak English properly
à ignorance of the English way of life
- unsympathetic, extreme, ignorant, doesn’t recognize the aversion of his children to Islam, immoral
- disappointment

FAMILY SECRETS IN EAST IS EAST
- first son isn’t dead, but he had to leave the family
- the whole family is in contact with Nazir, only George isn’t it, he doesn’t know about it
- Abdul is dating an English girl
- Abdul leaves the house at night for party
- the father wants to arrange marriages for Abdul und Tariq, Sajid knows about it
- the mother orders fashionable huts
- the children eat British pork meat
- the youngest son isn’t circumcised
- took part in a Christian procession
- one of the sons secretly attends art classes at college
- Abdul has a poster of a naked woman in his locker
- Sajid hides his real/active personality when his father is around
- Tariq drinks alcohol
- the sons and the daughter enjoy themselves when George thinks them to be working hard in the shop
- Menaah plays football

THE PURPOSE OR FUNCTION OF MARRIAGE
- to start a new family: having children
- to support when people are old
- to have support from the husband
- the reproduction of the own race/kind































HEAT AND DUST

RUTH PRAWER JHABVALA
- born 07. May 1927 in Cologne, educated Jewish middle class
- flew 1939 to England
- studied English literature
- 1951: married Cyrus Jhabvalla an Indian architect
à move to New Deli (independent India)
- firstly: novels with positive outlook, light in tone Indian society, insider’s point of view
- later: attention for the effect of India on Westerners
à more critical
- 1975: Booker Prize for “Heat and Dust”

SUMMARY
A young English woman goes to India to reconstruct the life of Olivia, her grandfather's first wife. Olivia had married Douglas in England some 50 years earlier and moved with him to Satipur, India. After she first met the
Nawab - at a dinner party at his palace in Khatm - she was certain he would, within the week, visit her in Satipur. She was correct (he arrived with his full retinue and stayed the day). It was after that first visit she began writing Marcia.
Olivia and the Nawab first become friends and then lovers. When she realized she was pregnant, she told the Nawab and then her husband Douglas and she had the Begum, the Nawab's mother, arrange an abortion. Following the abortion, she went directly to the palace in Khatm and the Nawab later purchased (kaufen) and maintained (erhalten) a house for her in X, a small village in the steep foothills of the Himalayas (he never spoke of her again publicly). Olivia died in the 1950s, a few years after the Nawab, a quarter century before the narrator arrived in India. Against British custom, Olivia had also had her body cremated and her ashes spread on the mountainside.
The young woman who came to India to discover more about Olivia is the narrator - neither her name nor the exact year she arrived are ever stated. She takes a room in Satipur and visits the house in which Olivia and Douglas had lived (it had been subdivided into several government offices, in one of which Inder Lal, her new landlord, works). She first visited the Nawab's palace with Inder Lal. She first visited the shrine of Baba Firdau on the day of an annual fertility festival (the "Husband's Wedding Day"), with Inder Lal's mother and her friends. When she subsequently visits the shrine with Inder Lal, the two become lovers (near the spot where Olivia and the Nawab had become lovers in 1923). The midwives in Satipur can tell the narrator is pregnant before she herself realizes it. The novel concludes with the narrator, whose choice is to carry her child to term, having arrived in X (she has taken a room; she has stood inside Olivia's house). The narrator has heard there is an ashram further up the mountain although she does not know how long she will stay; she says she rarely looks down.




THE TITLE
- heat makes people feel tired and less tempered à metaphorical heat
- exhausted, explosive situation, disturbances
- heat makes emotions become high
à aren’t even stopped by the heat
- dust storm: symbol for the rest-less ness and the explosive situation outside and in people’s mind
- dust = symbol: she’s shocked (Olivia), doesn’t know what to do, without orientation, psychological blind, Olivia doesn’t see the truth of the Nawab
- dust layer – fear because of possible riots
- heat = excuse that Harry doesn’t know anything about the riot
- denotations (Begriffsumfang):
à heat – hot temperatures/weather, dry, uncomfortable
à dust – light, smallest pieces/particles of dirt, in deserts/rooms
- connotations (Nebenbedeutung):
à heat – exhausting, sweat, summer, sand, tired, desert, thirst, burning, dead, fire, love, passion, naked, anger, fury, aggression, provocation
à dust – dry, dirt, disgusting, old things, funeral, sadness, allergy, uncomfortable, blind, bad air, storm, things long forgotten
- blindness because of the dust: being unsure about what to do
- dust covers Olivia’s piano (symbol of her happiness à unhappy in India)
- layer (Schicht) of dust – atmosphere of fear

CHARACTERS

THE NARRATOR
- interested in her past in India
- open to other cultures
- tolerant, open-minded
- likes adventures
- young, has an affair with Inder Lal
- gets pregnant and wants an abortion first, but later she decides to get the child
- prefers to describe, not many thoughts, feelings
- rationally, methodically organizing her new life, wants to become a part of “normal” Indian society
- learns the language
- not impulsive/emotional
- no real insight for the reader
- her last name is probably Rivers, her first name is never mentioned
- emancipated, independent, strong, self-confident
- lives minimalistic, not materialistic, not much furniture
- relaxed, care-free
- polite, patient
- grandchild of Tessie and Douglas
- not very careful about her possessions at first à don’t know how to behave properly, unexperienced
- enjoys watching the Indians (Indian society)
- accepts her role as a stranger à understandable
- willing to adapt to the Indian culture, learns Hindi, wears Indian clothes
- feels guilty that Inder Lal spends the Sunday with her and not with his family

OLIVIA
- doesn’t want to live in India, comes because of Douglas
- wants to be striking
- materialistic, dependant on her husband, likes luxury
- enjoys respect of the servants
- is bored by the Indians and their stories
- unexperienced
- polite (she only seems to be)
- small and slender
- elegant clothes, jewellery, satin shoes
- attracted by the palace, likes expensive things
- wants to learn Urdu
- young, self-confident
- single-minded
- the opinion of the others is important to her
- sensitive
- feels like an outsider in the society of British India also in the Indian world, regards other Britons as boring, except Douglas
- impatient to discover the “real India”
- fascinated by the Nawab
- at first: a rather conventional middle-class wife
- she wants to explore the exotic world but is rather passive and waits for something to happen
- Nawab = excuse to escape in a bright, exotic world
- uncritical admiration
- naïve, dominated by her instincts (dismisses repeated warnings)
- noting in common with Beth, Mrs. Minnies
- open relationship with Harry, have similar feelings to the Nawab
- at the end she runs away from the conflict
- a hidden strength, strong but looks to Douglas for support
- towards the end: motives become obscure (why abortion?)
- is very often alone in her big house
- she reads, plays the piano
- her husband Douglas is very busy
- she feels good and comfortable in the Nawab’s palace
- thinks it is the right place for her
- likes people who are noble and fair for example Douglas
- feels alone because she is the only one who thinks in her way
- wants to impress the Nawab and dresses prettily
- is always strongly affected by graveyards (Friedhöfe), likes to wander through them, reading the inscriptions, sitting on a grave stone under a weeping willow (Trauerweide), letting her imagination roam (herumwandern)
- passionate, follows her temperament, acts impulsive, not for reason
- bored, searching for entertainment
- petulant (empfindlich, launisch), vain (eitel, eingebildet)
- the first wife of the narrator’s grandfather
- when she realized she was pregnant, she decided on an abortion, the Nawab bought and maintained a house for her in X on the steep foothills of the Himalayas

DOUGLAS
- the narrator’s grandfather
- after he divorced Olivia, he married Tessie, Beth Crawford’s sister, they had one son, the narrator’s father
- exact opposite of his wife
- feels as a part of the colonial community, integrated
- works hard and long to the evening
- noble and fair
- sitting very straight (opposite to Indians who lounge on sofas)
- tender, understanding
- duty more important than feelings
- incapable (unfähig) of expressing emotions
- believes in loyalty, blames (tadeln, die Schuld geben) everything on the weather
- neither likes nor trusts the Nawab, opposites concerning (wichtig sein für, betreffen) responsibility and duty
- only leisure (Freizeit): going to church, walks on the cemetery with Olivia
- sense of security and support in life
- Olivia was attracted due (zurückzuführend) to their contrast
- cannot give Olivia what she needs
- extreme different opinion regarding (betrachten, treffen) the Nawab
à estrangement (Entfremdung)
- blind regarding the relationship of Olivia and the Nawab
- feels contempt for the Nawab
- conscientious (gewissenhaft), dedicated (sich widmen) to duty, man of principle
- conventional, rationalistic, blind to his wife’s needs

THE NAWAB
- prince/ruler
- not hard-working; just do the things what a prince has to do
- sentimental when he spend time with Olivia, emotional
- possessive (sein Besitzrecht stark betonen)
- egoistic, dominant
- Muslim, against Hindu culture
- educated in India
- inferior (untergeordnet) to the English men
- dislike the British
- envious (missgünstig, neidisch)
- since the Nawab confines (beschränken) himself to listening to his guests and abstains (enthalten) from telling interesting or funny stories, he cannot be regarded as entertaining although he provides entertainment
- Taking into account that the Nawab spends his time drinking alcohol and having shallow (flach, oberfächlich) conversations, he is far from appearing serious. On the contrary, he gives the impression of being frivolous.
- Since it is a well-known fact that Islam wants its disciples to abstain from taking alcoholic drinks, a vodka-drinking Muslim leader like the Nawab does not appear to be pious (fromm, gottesfürchtig) or devout(aufrichtig, fromm, religiös).
- During the party at the Nawab’s palace, Olivia notices that the Nawab observes and listens to his guests without being truly interested in them. Provided that Olivia has not misconstrued (falsch auslegen, missverstehen) the Nawab’s behaviour, this suggests that he is hypocritical (heuchlerisch) as well as diplomatic. Although despising (verachten) his guests, he inspires (wecken, hervorrufen) trust and goodwill in them.
- By bringing his own vodka to Olivia’s palace and thus (so, folglich) disdaining (verachten, verschmähen) drinks he might have been offered by her the Nawab does not create a courteous (höflich) impression. On the contrary, his behaviour proves to be rather rude und snobbish.
- gives dinner parties for the British à diplomatic
- grand palace, luxurious furniture, fittings à rich
- he pretends to like Major Minnies story, honestly he doesn’t like it
- alert (alarmiert sein) that everyone has enough to drink
- comes to visit Olivia à polite
- he invites Olivia to sit opposite to him (in her house!)
- fascinated by Olivia
- laughs after Major Minnie’s story: is entertained, not the entertainer
- a born ruler with nothing to rule about
- hates British authorities (uses Olivia to take revenge)
- dealing with dacoits, without scruples, lack of principle
- like a child: wants to win the game at any rate
- dominated by his mother
- he became a prince when he was 15, when his father died of a stroke (Schlaganfall)

HARRY
- outsider in the British community (by choice)
- plump, unattractive
- last name is never mentioned
- had been with the Nawab for 3 years as a semi-permanent guest in the palace
- many years after everyone (Olivia, the Nawab, Douglas)had died, he gave Olivia’s letters (which Marcia had given him) to Beth, who shared a house in England with her sister Tessie, Douglas’ widow, the narrator’s grandmother
- Olivia likes him
- homosexual (that’s why he stays with the Nawab)
- deep-seated suspicion (hatred of the British establishment)
- affection for the Nawab
- Olivia’s only real friend
- unhappy figure
- the Nawab treats Harry badly (a prisoner). takes his anger out on Harry
- Harry’s illness gets worse as Olivia’s and the Nawab’s relationship gehts closer à frustration
- weak-willed (concerning his journey back to England)
- a screen and a hindrance to their relationship
- he often confronts Olivia with the truth à moving the story forward
- a sufferer, sensitive, helpful
- never has a girlfriend
- does everything what the Nawab says to him

MR CRAWFORD
- chief British administrator
- came back to England lately, originally had planed to stay in India

MAJOR MINNIES
- profoundest relationship to India/its people and culture
- sympathy, understanding for the Nawab/for the Indian culture
- ambivalent feelings
- open-minded, genuine love for India

BETH CRAWFORD/MARY MINNIES
- ideally adapted to living anywhere in the world, make the best of her situation
- bright, practical, helpful
- cheerful, bright, tough, sensible and modern out look on life
- they don’t want Olivia’s company
- don’t ask questions/look beyond the bounds of their world, never want to find out more about India
- will not shirk her responsibility, fulfil it

DR: AND MRS SAUNDERS
- out of place in the British community
- open disdain for India
- Mrs. Saunders feels threatened by her servants
- Dr. Saunders: Indian culture as “plain savagery and barbarism”
- she wants to return to England, but he is not wiling to give up is position
- death of her child à India = intolerable
- not the same social class as the others, few possessions
- strident, unrefined, lacking for decorum, distrustful of all Indians, quick to condemn

INDER LAL
- educated, married, 3 children, relatively well of
- works for the local government
- unhappy, frustrated
- suffers from the burden of looking after his family
- feels caught between his mentally unstable wife and his dominant mother, who chose the wife for him
- passive, unsure of himself
- realized that political independence hasn’t brought a solution for the problems
- same role as the Nawab (his inkeritor)
- represents modern India
- sensitive, oppressed, worried, full of longing, the victim of intrigues at the office

CHID
- interest in Hindu teaching
- same problems as other Westerners
- attempts to live on a higher plane of consciousness à too difficult
- caught half way between his origins and his choosen destiny
- comic touch, imperfect transformation
- gets very ill
- sexually active
- broken by India, needs help
- stands for the young generation in the 60s/70s who failed à recalls the words of the missionary at the beginning
- tries to find enlightment
- hypocritical, helpless, naïve, disoriented

MAJI (MOTHER)
- almost mythical (like a Hindu goddess with power over life and death)
- corpulent
- often sitting on the ground, smiling, laughing
- Indian holy woman
- others look up to her for guidance and council
- able to enter a higher level of consciousness at will, skilled in various mystical and physical practices
- strengthens the will of the narrator to bear her child
- helps the beggar woman to die
- compassion, compansionship, serious counterbalance to e.g. Chid
- impressive
- lived formely with husband and children
- represents an authentic Indian spirituality
- motherly, cheerful, selfless, respected by the others
- surrounded by a special aura, spiritual

PERSONENKONSTELLATIONEN
- Olivia and Marcia are sisters (Marcia lives in Paris, collects Olivia’s letters)
- Olivia and Harry are friends
- Olivia had been married/divorce with Douglas
- Olivia is in love with the Nawab
- Harry is a friend of the Nawab
- Beth Crawford and Tessie are sisters
- Douglas is the future husband/in love with Tessie
- Beth Crawford is married with Mr. Crawford (chief administrator/collector)
- The Saunders and the Crawfords are close friends
- Tessie (grandmother) and Beth (great-aunt) are relatives of the narrator
- in India women are divided in 3 groups
1. hate India à want to leave it
2. love India à young women, enjoy the advantages of sport, tennis, …
3. lucky group à moved away in the summer, hills (north when its hot and south when its cold or not so hot)

OBJECTS/PLACES
- SATIPUR
à city where the narrator rents a room from Inder Lal
à city where Olivia and Douglas had lived together in 1923
- KHATM
à a squat little town that had grown up in the shadow of the Nawab’s palace
à the Begum arranges for Olivia to visit the midwives in the back alleys of Khatm
- THE NAWAB’S PALACE
à is described like a jewel above ugly Khatm
- X
à the villiage in the steep foothills of the Himalayas where Olivia lived the quarter century after she had miscarried in Satipur hospital and fled to the palace


THEMES
- East meets West
à centre of the plot in both levels
à contrast between Olivia’s cultural naivety and the narrator’s earnest
(sich verdienen) efforts (Anstrengungen) to become integrated
àtime of colonial and religious tension (1923)
à deep-rooted (tief verwurzelt) suspicion (Verdacht, Argwohn) (stereotyped thinking on both sides)
à Encounters (Begegnungen) are difficult
- Birth and Death
à marble (mamorartig) angle bearing a child
à Olivia’s fears of a dead-born-child
à her pregnancy ends with the chosen death of the foetus
- Withstanding India
à framework (Gerüst, Rahmen) for the novel
à important for the life of the main characters
à a source of inner strength is needed to get by in India (missionary Mrs. Minnies)
à a danger to the European mind, especially for those who love India best
à Europeans need a moral-intellectual backbone
à some British become sick in body and soul (Harry, Chid), India is too much for them
- Posture
à Douglas straightness of posture
à Indian’s lounge about on cushions
- Unfulfilled longing (Sehnsucht, Verlangen)
à unites British and Indian characters
à Olivia and Douglas suffer from their child less ness
à Olivia is longing for the Nawab
à the Nawab looks back longingly to a previous time (meet enemies in open battle)
à Inder Lal longs for thing beyond (jenseits) his reach (Strecke)
à in the narrator’s life something is missing, she’s waiting for its fulfilment
- parent-child-relationship
à British in the role of parents, authority, responsibility for the Indians
à Indians as children (Nawab behaves like a child)
à conviction (feste Überzeugung) that Indians would be helpless without the “parental” guidance of professional administrators
à 1970s: ironic reversal (Umkehren): Maji talks about Chid as if he was her child
à in modern India the Westerners need help

STYLE/LANGUAGE AND IMAGERY
- heat and dust appears often, the influence is mentioned
- as the temperature rises to the limits of the bearable (Erträglichen), tension flames (aufflackern) up between rivalling groups, until the heat becomes even to brutal for hostilities (Feindseligkeiten)
- Olivia barricade themselves
- India appears as a parched (ausgetrocknet) land of the dead and the dying
- when rain is mentioned, it is associated with rebirth and renewal (Erneuerung) (water in general
- rain during the episode in which the narrator decides to keep her baby (visual level of symbolic rebirth in the rain)
- rain = power of regeneration and killing heat and dust, form a unity of opposites
- India = the central symbol of the novel
- India, the great seducer (Verführer)
- India changes people = formative power, profound (tief) influence
- the mountains = a place of revelation (Enthüllung) and rebirth (to escape the heat, to heal the mind)
- the narrator hopes to be transformed in the mountains as Olivia was
- Heat, dust, rain = important symbolic elements in the description of India
- oasis
à for Olivia, Harry is an oasis (watering hole = information about the Nawab)
à a haven of British ness (the piano, the furniture)
à Harry’s term for the river’s drawing room
- as time goes by, Olivia’s attitude to her home and India have changed radically/ Harry’s have not
- the oasis becomes a trap (Fallle) for Olivia, she rejects (ablehnen, zurückweisen) the oasis, because she is strong enough on her own
- the palace
à point of Olivia’s longing
à Khatm are her fulfilled expectations (Erwartung) of India
à a symbol of leisure (Freizeit) and luxury
à the Nawab makes the palace attractive to her
à contrast between the beautiful palace and the poor town of Khatm
à Olivia refuses (ablehnen) to see the truth, furthermore, she refuses to see that the finances the splendid (prachtvoll, prächtig) palace by robbery (Raub, Einbruch)
- the marble (aus Marmor) angle
à for Olivia: fears and hopes concerning (betreffen) her marriage, feels drawn to the symbol of sorrow and consolation (Trost); hope to save her marriage by a child
à for the narrator: a symbol of decay (Verfall), the nature transforms/destroys every human made thing
à it has become Indian, it has be transformed like the narrator/Olivia
- the piano
à a symbol of European middle-class-culture, respectability and refinement (Vornehmheit)
à connection between European culture and Olivia in India
à symbolism undergoes a transformation:
à the Nawab’s pianos are out of tune à only a status symbol
à later, he repairs his grand piano and carries it to the mountainside where Olivia lives
à a constant in Olivia’s life
à an incongruity (Unstimmigkeit, Unvereinbarkeit) in India à she looses interest in it when she has more to do with the Nawab

POINT OF VIEW
- The narrator’s parts of this novel are told in the first person
- She relates Olivia’s parts sometimes in the first person but usually in the third
- the points of view are those of women
- their voices are separate in time by about 50 years

LANGUAGE AND MEANING
- written in English
- the Nawab uses extreme polite English to express contempt
- some of the words used are of religious origin
- some people and things are not named; don’t know the narrator’s first name, X was the name of the town where Olivia lived the rest of her days and the exact year the narrator arrived is never stated

THE STRUCTURE
- two distinct levels with separate narrator
- present: à entries from the narrator’s diary
à kind of prologue (written later than the diary but at the first pages)
à epilogue: journey to X, visiting Olivia’s home
à tells also of events in the past
- past: à only 1923
- prologue: stands of narrative are intertwined (verpflochten) with each other à framework (Rahmen, Gerüst) (together with the epilogue)
- it is possible that the narrator in the present tries to retell Olivia’s story and thus (so, folglich) the narrator of both levels is, but it is not proved
- there are lots of information about Olivia, that could not have been in the letters to Marcia and have to be imagined à Olivia = a fictional construct
- the narrator relives and reinterprets Olivia’s life
- an untypical diary, irregular entries, no reflection, possible that there are a few days between the event and the writing act
- pragmatic, detached (distanziert) attitude regarding herself and her surroundings as if she’s not directly involved, no inside in her inner life (is she in love with Inder Lal or not?)
- reliable (zuverlässig), but inscrutable (unergründlich, unerklärlich) narrator
- historical narrative:
à third-person point of view
à mostly from Olivia’s perspective, occasional brief glimpses into other minds
à Olivia is always present, her feelings and thoughts are shown, people are described with Olivia’s eyes
à some exceptions (Ausnahme): omniscient (allwissend) point of view
à key question: what significance does Olivia have for the narrator? (especially if the Olivia in the book is really the narrator’s interpretation?)
à perhaps the narrator tries to find reasons for Olivia’s behaviour by imitating her?
à the narrator interprets Olivia’s infidelity (Untreue) story not as a classic story of a woman torn (hin- und hergerissen) between two men but rather as a decision for India and against Britain
à Olivia remains (bleiben) a mystery

PARALLELISMS BETWEEN 1923 AND THE 1970s
- the place, both are in India, for distance in Satipur, the narrator often visits the places where Olivia lived, e.g. in the mountains at the end of the novel
- the “husband’s wedding day” is a topic in both plots
- both become pregnant after visiting the shrine
- both think about having an abortion
- both put down their experiences (Olivia writes some letters to her sister Marcia and the narrator writes this novel)
- the wifes of their new friends are mentally ill, for instance (Beispiel) Inder Lal’s wife and Nawab’s wife also
- the marble angle and its symbolism
- make love at Barba Firdau’s grove
- Chid and Harry want to return and finally return
- live in the mountains
INDIAN EXPERIENCES
- OLIVIA:
à considers India boring place
à she doesn’t like the way of life
à wants to leave, is lonely
à can’t stand the heat
à she went to India to join her husband
à Olivia has no other chance. It is not a free decision to go to India, she gives up her life to be with her husband.
- THE NARRATOR:
à fascinated of India
à dresses like an Indian woman
à gets along with her Indian landlord and his family
à loves to see the bazaar from her window
à tries to learn Hindu
à contacts the Indian population
à everything the narrator does is a conscious (bewusste) decision, she wants to explore the country, the people and her family’s history



THEMATISCHER SCHWERPUNKT 3:
MEN AND WOMAN: CHANGING GENDER ROLES


MALE
- boasters (Aufschneider)
- may not cry
- muscles
- overprotected, superman, strong
- hair turns grey
- beard
- lazy
- Daddy
- competing and winning
- being aggressive
- being tough and adventurous
- being good at sport

FEMALE
- to be pregnant, housewives, cooking
- shopping
- emotional, romantic
- sex symbols, catwoman, do a lot for their beauty
- emancipation, friendship
- difficult to handle, complicated
- manager of the family

GENDER
- social construction of male/female identity
- a set of ideas that influences behaviour
- a set of signs and symbols
- flexible contrast to biological category of sex (which is fixed)
- discussion nature vs. nurture (Erziehung)
- behaviour because of learning and imitation or because of genetic make-up?
- male and female characteristics are (partially) socially constructed/variable
- boys and girls act and think differently, can not be treated equally, never the less women should have the same opportunities
- gender is not easy to change, it is recognizable even if the outward appearance is changed
- behaviour related to the sexes, masculine and feminine
- formed by: education, socialisation (culture, region, classes, peer-group, state of health)





NATURE VS. NURTURE (Natur vs. Erziehung)
- men and woman differ (verschieden sein) fundamentally in biological ways
- thesis: female and male behaviour is also a product of evolution
(à biologically determinated)
- most important question: what to make of the difference?
- one answer: nothing will change the differences
à man will always want to have a sexual relationship with lots of different woman
à woman will always try to be with one man
- other answer: a lot of variation in Gender Roles, change is possible and evident
- how great is the biological/cultural influence?
- evolutionary psychologists: “We can’t change the difference”
à our genes, goes back to the sexual selection: men use reproductive energies to have as many children as possible, women use energy as raising a few children and caring about them
- among (unter, zwischen) humans, this principle is not strict but never the less evident (offenkundig, augenscheinlich)
- always a conflict between men and women (women want men to invest in their children and by this lose the opportunity to have several mates)

THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION
Dates in the USA
- 1920: woman allowed to vote
- 1964: equal employment opportunities for woman
- 1970: equal pay for woman

Dates in Great Britain
- 1927: women allowed to vote after hunger strikes
- 1970: equal pay for woman
- 1970: wives allowed to own bank accounts without the husband’s consent
- 1978: wives allowed to receive their own tax rebates

Background
- early women’s right Movement in America ( 19th century), very radical
- went from door to door to collect signatures
à the parliament laughed about it
- movement built up by women who were civilly dead by marriage or by unmarried women (legal minors)
à could not sign a will, did not have custody upon their children after divorce, not taught to read, no political voice
- from the very beginning: women’s movement serious threat to the order
- 1848: - First Equal Rights Convention ever
- beginning of an organized women’s movement in the USA
- most of them: middle class native-born
- the demands:
à the right to vote
à keep own property/wages (Lohn)
à responsibilities for all actions, no obedience to the husband anymore
à fair divorce rights
à to be recognized by the government, even if they don’t have property
à same employments/wages (Lohn)
à participation in formation of laws
à same rights as men
à representation in government and legislation, refuse to be oppressed
à civil rights even as married women
à keep the self-earned money
à (moral) responsibility for actions, no obedience to the husbands
à own decision about taxation of property
à guardianship of the children
à equal education
à equal influence in church and state
à same code of morals
à independence and respect

COMPARISION TO THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
- same structure
- same introduction, but “men and women”
- both: no taxation without representation
- against unfair/undemocratic system
- everyone is equal

INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIA ON GENDER ROLES
20-30 years ago Today
male - absolute toughness- stubborn self-reliance- emotional silence - men have emotions- need for advice (Ratschlag)- problems of masculinity (example: loss of hair)
female - house-wife- low status worker - feisty successful girl-power- tough- strong willed

- media 20-30 years ago: backwards, looking force, push people back into traditional categories
- toady: a force for change, good and bad advices, kind of “guidance” (Anleitung, Beratung), experiments








SHAKESPEARE
- playwright, poet, actor
- date of birth is unknown, maybe the 23.April 1564
- child of John Shakespeare an Mary Ardens
- 1582: marriage with Anne Hathaway
- children: Susanna, Hamnet, Judith
- 1584/1585-1592: lost years, many rumours
- since 1592: own troupe of actors, “Lord Chamberlain’s Men”
- a bad actor, only little roles
- 1599: part owner of the Globe Theatre
- 1616: died at the age of 52 years of a fever
- literature before Shakespeare’s time: poetry-sonnet

ENTERTAINMENT IN SHAKESPEARE’S THEATRE
- London: 200.000 inhabitants, exciting
- theatres were very fashionable for poor and rich people
- greatest period of theatrical achievement (Vollendung, Ausführung)
- theatres were in the south of the River Thames

CRITICS TO THE THEATRE
- the youth of the city is infected with ungodly qualities (Charakter, Wesen) by the theatres
- stories are uncontrolled
- stop going to church
- hindrance (Behinderung) of trades (Handel)
- theatres attire immoral persons
- confederates, conspiracies (Verschwörung) can not be prevented
à banishing theatres from the city

THE GLOBE THEATRE
- round building, no roof in the middle where the groundlings stood
- stage at an upper level
- best seats had a roof, at the sides closest to the stage (so that they could hear the dialogues)
- Shakespeare’s days: 3.000 people
- today: 1.500 people
- the audience
à a wide range of citizens
à low cost attracted many people as possible
à groundlings: on the floor, no seats; shopkeepers, crafts men (Handwerker), exuberant (übersprudelnd, überschwenglich)rowdy young men, genuine (echt, ehrlich) lovers of the theatre (well educated)
à gallery: gentleman, professional men, courtiers, members of the nobility
à also women were listening (surprising for London visitors)
à at least one thousand people an evening was typical
à accuse: people came to secret meetings and immoral activities
à majority only enjoyed the play
à groundlings important for the atmosphere
- entertainment was full of fun, also a criticism of life
- groundlings were always ready for new themes à important for Shakespeare’s work

SHAKESPEARE - ROMEO & JULIET

BACKGROUND
The Montagues and Capulets are two rivalry families. They are involved in a family feud that goes back years before any of the members were born. Yet the feud still continues due to the fact that neither family is ready to forgive and forget the past. Even the townspeople are involved because the families do not keep the feud in the privacy of their own home but have been seen fighting in the public streets and displaying violence. They disrupt the peace of Verona and even Prince Escalus personally had to break up a fight, where the family members were heavily fined. They were also given a warning that another public fight could result in death. While this is occurring Romeo, the main character, is getting over his last love, Rosaline, and was very upset. Juliet of the Capulet household has just been introduced to a wealthy young man, Paris, who her parents wish her to marry. Yet she does not love him.

PLOT SUMMARY
Romeo (Montague), who is in love with Rosaline, goes to a party in an effort to forget her or to ease his broken heart. At this party he met Juliet, and immediately fell in love with her. He later finds out that she is a Capulet, the rival family of the Montagues. He decides that he loves her anyway and they confess their love for each other during the very famous "balcony scene" in which they agree to secretly marry the next day. Friar Lawrence agrees to marry them in an effort to end the feuding between the families. Unfortunately, the fighting gets worse and Mercutio (Montague), a good friend of Romeo's, ends up in a fight with Tybalt (Capulet), Juliet's cousin. Tybalt kills Mercutio, which causes Romeo to kill Tybalt in an angry rage. For this, Romeo is banished from Verona.
At the same time, the Capulet's are planning Juliet's marriage to Paris. Juliet does not want to marry this man so she arranges with Friar Lawrence to fake her own death with a sleeping potion that will make everyone think that she is dead. Friar Lawrence promises to send word to Romeo to meet her when the potion wears off and to rescue her to Mantua, where Romeo is currently staying. There they would live happily ever after. Unfortunately, Romeo does not receive this message on time and upon hearing of her "death" goes to Juliet's tomb where he drinks poison and dies. When Juliet's potion wears off, she awakens to find her lover's corpse. She then proceeds to stab herself with Romeo's dagger. The two families find the bodies and their shared sorrow; finally make peace with each other.





CHARACTERS
- Romeo is a Montague. He falls in love with Juliet and proceeds to marry her. He is a tragic character. He is characterized as hasty and emotional. He is young. acting a bit in a feminine way because of the way he shows his feelings, rebels against his family à doesn't fulfil his role as a son
loving and caring husband à fulfils his role as a husband
- Juliet - She is a Capulet. She falls in love with Romeo. She believes marriage should be for love. She is also characterized as hasty. She is young. really close relationship to her nurse, unemotional relationship to her mother
In the beginning she is obedient, dutiful daughter, wants to fulfil her parents' wishes, then she is more confident, doesn't submit to her father's wills and intentions (marriage) à doesn't fulfil her role as a daughter because she rebels against her parents
In her relationship with Romeo she is loving, caring, devoted to her husband, willing to die for him à fulfils her role as a wife
- Lord Capulet - He is Juliet's father. He is strict, harsh, not understanding. He wants her to marry Paris. not happy in his marriage, wants the fighting to stop, He is superior, Juliet and her mother are inferior to him, have to submit to his wills, his family is wealthy and respected, he is responsible for the material support of the family à fulfils his role as the head of the family
- Lady Capulet – She is Juliet’s mother. To her love is not that important, real head of the family, wants Juliet to marry Paris. She does everything her husband wants, is inferior, obedient, would never try to impose her will
à fulfils her role as a wife, is dominant à authority, educated, marriage for her: business, social status, should be an intellectual match
- Lady Montague - She is Romeo's mother. She is very busy and strict. She is real feminine and e real loving mother, has to do what Montague says, very conservative marriage, afraid that her son maybe killed
- Lord Montague - He is Romeo's father. He is stubborn and not willing to forgive. He is the head of the family, very masculine
- Paris - He is kinsman of Prince. He cares about Juliet and wishes to marry her.
- Prince Escalus - He is Prince of Verona. He wants to call a truce and end the family feud. Doesn’t want his citizens to be hurt, has got a really big influence
- Friar Laurence - He is the Priest in Verona. He weds (trauen) Romeo and Juliet hoping it will unite both families. Instead it causes fighting. He later gives Juliet sleeping potion. He helps Romeo out. good soul of the play, catholic, close relationship to Romeo, the fake death was his idea, wants the fighting to stop, good person, wants people to live in peace, listen to people with problems, caring, friendly person, wonders why Romeo forgot Rosalind so fast à hints to a fast love that won’t end in a good way
- Friar John - He was supposed to deliver a letter to Romeo about Juliet, but Romeo did not get it.
- The Nurse - She cared for Juliet during childhood. She wants Juliet to be happy. She is very talkative (redselig, gesprächig). feels like a mother, doesn’t want to loose “her” daughter, to her love is really important, had a child, same age like Juliet, her child died,, so she was able to breastfeed Juliet, loves Juliet like her own daughter
- Mercutio - He is a good friend of Romeo. sarcastic, ironic, outward-going, a fight is a game/play for him, friend who wants to go out, have fun with Romeo, the more optimistic one, lively
- Balthasar - He is a servant and a friend of Romeo.
- Benvolio - He is a friend of Romeo. Nephew of Montague, tries to console (trösten) Romeo, diplomatic, wants to finish the fight, to calm them down, tries to avoid (vermeiden) a fight, doesn’t want to involve the citizens, cares about Romeo’s lovesickness, like the big brother of Romeo, take care about him, a caring brother, tries to help him
- Tybalt - He is a nephew of Lady Capulet. He has a bad temper (Stimmung, Wut, Wesen, Laune). always looks for a fight, never tries to settle (klären, schlichten) a fight, nephew of Lady Montague, possessed (beherrscht) by the enmity
- Samson - He is a Capulet servant
- Gregory -He is a Capulet servant

THEMES
- Hastiness - Romeo is hasty (hastig, voreilig) to fall in and out of love. The two are too hasty to get married; they never thought about what could go wrong.
- Infatuation - Romeo and Juliet, in all probability, were not really in love. They were infatuated (verblendet, vernarrt) with each other. They were in love with the idea that they were in love. They could not have fallen so deeply in love with only one conversation.
- Selfishness - Everyone in this play (except Benvolio) acts selfishly (egoistisch, selbstsüchtig). Juliet never told her parents about Romeo and did the selfish act of faking her death, which greatly upset (bestürzen, aus der Fassung bringen) them. The Capulets were selfish for making Juliet marry a man that she did not love. Both of the families were selfish for continuing the fighting. Friar Laurence ran away when he saw the two families go into the tomb (Grab). He wanted to prevent himself from getting in trouble. Tybalt was selfish for killing Mercutio. Romeo was not thinking of Juliet as he killed her cousin.

KEY ISSUES (Probleme, Fragen)
- Feuding - The feuding of the families was the whole reason for the tragedy. They should have reconciled (versöhnen, aussöhnen) their differences years ago. They didn't even know what they were fighting about.
- Stereotypes - Some members of the Capulets and Montagues have never even met and yet they hate each other. Why? Because of a person's last name.
- Dreams - The whole story had occurred (statt finden, sich ereignen) in a dream which foretold (vorhergesagt) their fate. This was a warning for Romeo yet he chose to ignore it.
- Decisions - Many difficult decisions had to be made. Friar's decision to marry them was difficult. He could have told their parents. He risked taking the responsibility for marrying them knowing it might cause upheaval (Umsturz). Juliet had the difficult decision of how to get out of marrying Paris. She was also confronted with the dilemma of whether to appease (beruhigen, beschwichtigen) her parents and follow their wishes which would mean marrying Paris or follow her heart and marry Romeo. The families made the decision to end their feud to prevent any more unnecessary deaths.
- Sacrifices - Romeo and Juliet were willing to sacrifice (opfern) their relationship with their families in order to be together.
- Fate - It was considered (überlegt) fate that they would meet and fall in love and then die for each other. Fate brought them together as well as ended their lives. It was in the stars.

MORAL LESSONS
- There is more to love than lust (Drang, Gier, Verlangen). Romeo and Juliet did not take the time to get to know each other and form a deep intimate relationship. They rushed into their relationship. They were also very young to be experiencing love. Even people much older than them do not know what love means. It may have really been true love that was mutually (gegenseitig) felt by both of them though.
- Labels mean nothing - Their last name was a label (Etikette, Beschriftung). Their names were what almost kept them apart (auseinander, getrennt). But love saw through that. They saw each other in secrecy and soon fell madly in love. Love sees no barriers.
- Listen to advice - If the families had listened to the Prince of Verona and made peace, then Mercutio and Tybalt would not have died. If Romeo and Juliet would have listened to the advice given to them by the Friar then they would not have died so young. The Friar cautioned them about acting hasty and irrational. But instead the star - crossed lovers meet the fate of death.
- Don't seek (suchen) revenge (Rache) - The families sought (suchen, erlangen woollen) revenge for things that did not even involve them and happened years ago. They needed to forgive and forget. Yet when both parties are stubborn it takes the death of two young lovers for them to realize that their actions were wrong. Tybalt called Romeo a villain (Schuft, Schurke) and dared (herausfordern) him to fight. With his refusal (Ablehnung, Zurückweisung) Mercutio began to fight Tybalt to defend (verteidigen) the family name. Romeo tries to stop them, but it is too late when Tybalt kills Mercutio. In anger and guilt Romeo than retaliates (Vergeltung üben) and catches Tybalt. In Romeo's rashness Tybalt dies.
- Don't act hastily- This involves the manner in which Romeo and Juliet acted. They should have thought things through first before they jumped into matrimony. Matrimony is a lifetime thing and not just a teenage phase.









LOVE AND HATE

TRUE LOVE
- willing to spend a life together
- no life without each other
- knowing everything (no secrets)
- willing to accept faults
- based on deep emotions
- willing to die for each other


FALSE LOVE
- just an affair
- sex instead of love
- just attracted by the appearance, not by the character trades
- not willing to spend a life together

ROMANTIC LOVE (literature)
- unfulfilled love
- eternal, true love

FATE
- everything happens for a certain reason
- people can’t decide about what’s happening
- things are happening coincidentally (zufällig)
- things we can’t decide: born like a girl or a boy, accidents, which parents, which social class, which country, handicaps

COMEDY
- exaggeration (Übertreibung), Romeo’s love to Rosalind, the way he shows his feelings
- puns – vulgar, sexist
- confusion (Verwirrung, Durcheinander)
- satiric & ironic elements, satiric: Friar Laurence married them just because of the fact that they are allowed to have sex after the marriage.
- parody
- coincidence, party of Capulet

TRAGEDY
- death
- unfulfilled love
- dilemma
- murder
- fights
- suicide
- banishing
- gloomy atmosphere
- hate
- sadness
- fear
- depression


ROMEO
Simon1
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 14:04:20    Titel:

Danke!!
ExituZ
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 14:05:11    Titel:

ach was!!
Seeeeehr nett!
Genau sowas hab ich gesucht Smile
Werde mir alles durchlesen
LightBlueee
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 15:44:20    Titel:

wow cooli!!!!
vielen dank!
Don_Philippe
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 16:15:58    Titel:

Wer lernt denn so viel für Englisch? Wink
Rehjim
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 16:20:10    Titel:

Denke zwar auch nicht, dass man für Englisch so viel machen muss, aber ich werde diese Zettel mal überfliegen. Vielen Dank fürs Posten, ist echt korrekt von dir.
EvaG
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 16:25:10    Titel:

PERFEKT! DANKE! DANKE! DANKE!
stiffla
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 16:51:49    Titel:

hammer....thx Very Happy
santanah
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 16:58:49    Titel:

danke, aber wurde am ende evtl etwas abgeschnitten??
es hört mit

ROMEO (wie überschrift formatiert) auf aber danach folgen keine stichpunkte

wär cool wenn dus überprüfen und ggf. den rest noch hinzufügen könntest!

danke !
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BeitragVerfasst am: 17 Apr 2008 - 17:07:31    Titel:

Hey, das kenn ich doch noch aus einem anderen Forum, aber nochmals danke Wink

Aber der eine Fehler noch bei East is East
-> Meiner Meinung nach ist es Tariq, der das britische Mädel (Stella) zur Freundin hat
und der Locker bei der Arbeit, das ist nicht der von Abdul...der ist doch nur von seinen merkwürdigen Arbeitskollegen Wink Aber ich bezweifle, dass wir sowas wissen müssen ^^
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